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However note that the direction is wrong, it is set to Before the present and we want it to be Since some time in the past.(As it is, the height of 0.0 is at the oldest sequence.Tracer ( is used to summarise the posterior estimates of the various parameters sampled by the Markov Chain.

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BEAST2 ( is a free software package for Bayesian evolutionary analysis of molecular sequences using MCMC and strictly oriented toward inference using rooted, time-measured phylogenetic trees. BEAUti2 is a graphical user interface tool for generating BEAST2 XML configuration files.A correct time estimation is essential for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the diversification of orchids, and could contribute to discern between alternative hypotheses of diversification - such as significant increases in speciation rates temporally correlated to climatic changes, tectonic events, or radiation of pollinators.Many parameters have been identified to affect divergence time estimates in phylogenies, including taxon sampling, reliability, number and placement of internal calibration points, and dating method [] found that the second largest source of variance in age estimates (after availability and placement of internal calibration points) was derived from the choice of dating method employed, a result consistent with previous evaluations of empirical data [ PL requires a fixed phylogram as input, whereas BEAST samples topologies simultaneously as it calculates divergence times under a MCMC analysis, and allows the choice of several different priors and models; PL assumes autocorrelation of rates within the phylogeny (i.e.Select a normal distribution with mean 1986 and standard deviation 5 for the prior on the taxon set. #NEXUS BEGIN DATA; DIMENSIONS NTAX=17 NCHAR=1485; FORMAT MISSING=?GAP=- DATATYPE=DNA; MATRIX D4Brazi_1982 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGACCT... D4El Sal_1983 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGACCT... D4El Sal_1994 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGACCT... D4Indon_1976 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATCT... D4Indon_1977 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATCT... D4Mexico_1984 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGACCT... D4New Cal_1981 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGACCT... D4Philip_1964 ATGCGATGCGTGGGAGTGGGGAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATTT... D4Philip_1956 ATGCGATGCGTGGGAGTGGGGAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATTT... D4Philip_1984 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTGGGGAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGACTT... D4PRico_1986 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGACCT... D4SLanka_1978 ATGCGATGCGTGGGAGTGGGGAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATCT... D4Tahiti_1979 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATCT... D4Tahiti_1985 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGAAACAGAGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTTTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATTT... D4Thai_1963 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTGGGGAACAGGGACTTTGTGGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATCT... D4Thai_1978 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTGGGGAACAGAGACTTTGTAGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATCT... D4Thai_1984 ATGCGATGCGTAGGAGTAGGGAACAGAGACTTTGTAGAAGGAGTCTCAGGTGGAGCATGGGTCGATCT... ; END; BEGIN ASSUMPTIONS; OPTIONS SCALE = years; CALIBRATE D4El Sal_1994 = fixed(1994), CALIBRATE D4PRico_1986 = uniform(1984,1988), CALIBRATE D4Tahiti_1985 = offsetexponential(1984,1), CALIBRATE D4Mexico_1984 = normal(1984,5), CALIBRATE D4Philip_1984 = lognormal(1984,1.5), CALIBRATE D4Thai_1984 = offsetlognormal(1980,4,1.25), CALIBRATE D4Brazi_1982 = offsetgamma(1980,2,1), CALIBRATE D4El Sal_1983 = fixed(1983), CALIBRATE D4New Cal_1981 = fixed(1981), CALIBRATE D4Tahiti_1979 = fixed(1979), CALIBRATE D4SLanka_1978 = fixed(1978), CALIBRATE D4Thai_1978 = fixed(1978), CALIBRATE D4Indon_1977 = fixed(1975), CALIBRATE D4Indon_1976 = fixed(1976), CALIBRATE D4Philip_1964 = fixed(1964), CALIBRATE D4Thai_1963 = fixed(1963), CALIBRATE D4Philip_1956 = fixed(1956); END; Note that the tip-dates have been set in the Tip Dates panel.

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